“R” for Refashioning Fashion Plates in Early Modern Europe. Pascale Cugy & Corinne Thépaut-Cabasset

To the anonymous mannequins standing in fashion plates, the Bonnarts rapidly added portraits of high- ranking people from the Court. Repeating the same formal codes, these “portraits in mode” speculated on the celebrity of people from the Court, by adding to the stereotype image of a young and elegant man the name of a well-known person from the Court entourage. Praising their appearances and their “beauty”, these images were also a way for the merchants, who were selling them, to compliment and flatter the sitter. Continue reading “R” for Refashioning Fashion Plates in Early Modern Europe. Pascale Cugy & Corinne Thépaut-Cabasset

“N” for Night Gown: The Informal Gown of a Lady Wear. A customized fashion plate circa 1700: Dame de la Cour en « déshabillé négligé ». Pascale Cugy, Docteur in History of Art, University of Paris-Sorbonne

Les quatre frères Bonnart, nés entre 1637 et 1654 à Paris, sont particulièrement célèbres pour leurs images de vêtements, produites en grande quantité à partir des années 1680 et considérées comme les premières estampes à pouvoir vraiment prétendre au titre de « gravures de mode ». Ces centaines de planches de même format, gravées à l’eau-forte et au burin, très stéréotypées dans leur présentation, sont depuis longtemps perçues comme une chronique des apparences du règne de Louis XIV. Continue reading “N” for Night Gown: The Informal Gown of a Lady Wear. A customized fashion plate circa 1700: Dame de la Cour en « déshabillé négligé ». Pascale Cugy, Docteur in History of Art, University of Paris-Sorbonne

“E” for Embroidery: Mission Style in Alta California. Mariachiara Gasparini, Adjunct Lecturer, Art & Art History department, Santa Clara University, California

Discovered in a box in the Church of Santa Clara de Asís, California, a group of about one hundred pieces including liturgical vestments and related items from the Mission era, today represents the most important part of the historical collection in the de Saisset Museum next to the Mission Church on the campus of Santa Clara University. As in similar collections in the other Missions (twenty one in total) in California, the liturgical vestments encompass different styles, mainly 18th-19th century French, Italian, Spanish, and also Chinese. Continue reading “E” for Embroidery: Mission Style in Alta California. Mariachiara Gasparini, Adjunct Lecturer, Art & Art History department, Santa Clara University, California

“W” for Wool: War and Worsteds / Words and Things. Exploring the market for woollen textiles in early-modern Spanish America. John Styles, Research Professor in History, University of Hertfordshire, UK

With a population of between 6 and 8 million in 1700, larger than the Netherlands, Denmark, or England, the Spanish colonies in the Americas constituted a vast, wealthy market for a wide variety of European textiles. Despite local colonial production of woollen and cotton fabrics, Spanish American consumers were heavily reliant on European manufacturers, especially for higher quality textiles. Few of these textiles were manufactured in Spain. By the end of the 17th century, over 90% of the manufactured goods exported in the annual fleets which sailed from Cadiz originated outside Spain. The textiles smuggled into Spanish America from the neighbouring American colonies of other European powers, such as British Jamaica or Dutch Curaçao, were even more likely to have a non-Spanish origin. Continue reading “W” for Wool: War and Worsteds / Words and Things. Exploring the market for woollen textiles in early-modern Spanish America. John Styles, Research Professor in History, University of Hertfordshire, UK

“C” for Court Dress: An elaborate masterpiece made of green silk velvet, 1780-1790. Laura G. García-Vedrenne, Conservator, National Museum of History, Mexico

Besides, the consumption of all sorts of silk fabrics should be seen in Mexico as the main point of its commerce; clergy men, gentlemen, merchants, bourgeois, artisans, craftsmen and even Africans and mulatto, they all dress in silk for most part of the year. Therefore Spain, together with France, should focus firmly on this trade in order to rectify the deterioration in the situation due to the introduction of silk from China to Mexico.” (Translated from Jean de Monségur, 1709, chap. XXXVII)

Miguel de Herrera, Portrait of a lady (wearing a stomacher on the front of the bodice), 1782, oil on canvas, 125 x 101 cm. Mexico, Franz Mayer Museum Collection
Miguel de Herrera, Portrait of a lady (wearing a stomacher on the front of the bodice), 1782, oil on canvas, 125 x 101 cm. Mexico, Franz Mayer Museum Collection

Court dresses from the Eighteenth-century were made with extremely luxurious materials, and possessed three essential parts: a train, a rigid bodice, and a skirt (commonly called petticoat) that had to be used with a panier underneath. This type of dresses is usually defined by its function because court dress was worn in the presence of the royal couple. In the case of the New Spain, it is likely that it was used in front of the viceroys. However, more research is needed because formal dress could also be seen in important city celebrations, weddings, taking of vows, etc. Continue reading “C” for Court Dress: An elaborate masterpiece made of green silk velvet, 1780-1790. Laura G. García-Vedrenne, Conservator, National Museum of History, Mexico

“S” for Stockings for children. Charlotte Rimstad, Ph. D. Student, Centre for Textile Research, University of Copenhagen

 

Fig. 1. Child stocking with anthropomorphic clock. (KBM 3827 RHP, FO213753),
Fig. 1. Child stocking with anthropomorphic clock. KBM 3827 RHP, FO213753 Fig. 2. Stocking for a child, with the garter sewn on (1941:146C). Fig. 2. Stocking for a child, with the garter sewn on. 1941:146C
Fig. 3. Heel in garter stitches on a child stocking (KBM 1455 x1)
Fig. 3. Heel in garter stitches on a child stocking. KBM 1455 x1

Stockings for children are rarely found in museum collections, but they do exist. The Museum of Copenhagen has several different samples, and they tell a bit about the way children were seen and cared for in the 17th century. Continue reading “S” for Stockings for children. Charlotte Rimstad, Ph. D. Student, Centre for Textile Research, University of Copenhagen

“G” for Garters:

Stockings embroidered with gold and silver, and garters: very few assortments of this type of stockings would be sold, but as was noted in the article on silk stockings, they should be wider from the calf down to the heal, like those from Genoa. Having said that, those produced in Lyon are more beautiful and more highly regarded. The colors must be beautiful and as described in the article on silk stockings.

Along with the stockings, one should have an assortment of embroidered garters like those from Genoa. There should be one pair of garters for every four pairs of stockings. No garters are produced in Spain, and none have come yet from China.” (Translated from Jean de Monségur, 1709, Chap. XXXVIII)

Some examples of garters from early modern time Continue reading “G” for Garters:

“S” for Stockings: Made in Europe – but where? Edwina Ehrman, Curator of Textiles and Fashion, Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Pair of women's stockings of knitted silk, made in Spain, mid 18th Century: London, Victoria and Albert Museum, T.156-1971
Pair of women’s stockings of knitted silk, made in Spain, mid 18th Century. London, Victoria and Albert Museum, T.156-1971
detail stockings
Detail, pair of women’s stockings of knitted silk, made in Spain, mid 18th Century. London, Victoria and Albert Museum, T.156-1971
details stockings
Detail, pair of women’s stockings of knitted silk, made in Spain, mid 18th Century. London, Victoria and Albert Museum, T.156-1971
Stocking, embroidered silk, English, 1800-29. London, Victoria and Albert Museum, 666-1898
Stocking, embroidered silk, English, 1800-29. London, Victoria and Albert Museum, 666-1898

Silks Black sewn silk stockings, long enough to be rolled. Those from Seville are more highly regarded than those from France; Short stockings of the same quality, not intended to be rolled, but rather for use with the golille outfit, which have since fallen out of fashion. Other silk stockings of all colours and all lengths, for both men and women: Stockings from Naples and Milan called punto, both for men (when not rolled), as well as for women and children. This type of stocking is made in Toledo in Seville and across Spain, but those from Milan are considered the best. These stockings are also produced in France, and they are without question the most beautiful and the best of them all, but since they are also the most expensive- and have the disadvantage of being too narrow from the calf down to the heel- they do not sell as quickly as the others. In the detailed listing of the assortment of the cargo earlier mentioned, we will see which colours are the most coveted, with red and blue generally being the most popular. Many of this type of stocking also comes from China, and although they are not as good quality or as beautiful as those from Spain, France, or Italy, sales of these have detrimental effects on the consumption of the European ones, since they are offered at a better price.” (Translated from Jean de Monségur, 1709, Chap. XXXVIII) Continue reading “S” for Stockings: Made in Europe – but where? Edwina Ehrman, Curator of Textiles and Fashion, Victoria and Albert Museum, London

“F” for Fan: Fashionable fans. PhD Georgina Letourmy-Bordier, Fan Expert

Folding Fan with ivory serpentine sticks and painted silk palmettes, circa 1680s. ©The Fan Museum, Hélène Alexander Collection (Greenwich, London)
Folding Fan with ivory serpentine sticks and painted silk palmettes, circa 1680s.
©The Fan Museum, Hélène Alexander Collection (Greenwich, London)

Fans Assortment with beautiful and pleasant portraits and figures, with ivory sticks, all painted in bright colors, and some others dull.” (Translated from Jean de Monségur, 1709, Chap. XL)

« Les éventails à la mode sont de taffetas de différentes couleurs, et argentés. Continue reading “F” for Fan: Fashionable fans. PhD Georgina Letourmy-Bordier, Fan Expert

“D” for Damask: “The Night Watch of the costume world.” Claude Fauque, Textile and Dress historian

Dress, Damas, XVIIe c.(detail). Museum Kaap Still.
Dress made of Silk, 17th c. Texel, Kaap Skil Museum

Au cours des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, les tissus de soie en Europe échappent aux influences orientales de leur origine première et des styles nouveaux apparaissent. Continue reading “D” for Damask: “The Night Watch of the costume world.” Claude Fauque, Textile and Dress historian

“L” for Lace: Thinking about Lace. Michael Yonan, Associate Professor of Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Art, Director of Graduate Studies, University of Missouri

Miguel Cabrera (Mexican, 1695-1768). Doña María de la Luz Padilla y Gómez de Cervantes, ca. 1760. Oil on canvas, 43 x 33 in. (109.2 x 83.8 cm). Brooklyn Museum, Museum Collection Fund and Dick S. Ramsay Fund, 52.166.4
Doña María de la Luz Padilla y Gómez de Cervantes, ca. 1760. Miguel Cabrera (Mexican, 1695-1768). Oil on canvas, 43 x 33 in. (109.2 x 83.8 cm). Brooklyn Museum, Museum Collection Fund and Dick S. Ramsay Fund, 52.166.4

Lace is largely consumed. All different sorts of Lace -of all sizes and qualities- from Normandy, du Puy and Lorraine have a great debit.”(Translated from Jean de Monségur, 1709, Chap. XXXVI)

When looking at early modern colonial portraits, the viewer’s attention is invariably drawn to the subjects’ clothing. Continue reading “L” for Lace: Thinking about Lace. Michael Yonan, Associate Professor of Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Art, Director of Graduate Studies, University of Missouri

“A” for Appearance: The Culture of Clothing. “The Art of Tailoring”

“There is nor Church nor private in the Western Indies, who does not consume this kind of gold silk brocade; it has then to be considered for significant and its consumption shall rather increase than diminish, especially on occasions where vice-royalties looking for pomp and glory will walk through Mexico without wearing the golilla.” (Translated from Jean de Monségur, 1709, Chap. XXXVIII)

Pérez de Holguín, The Entrance of Don Diégo Morcillo, Viceroy of Peru, in the city of Potosí, in 1716, Bolivia, 1716. Painting, oil on canvas, 240 x 570 cm. Madrid, Museo de América, Inv 00087
Pérez de Holguín, The Entrance of Don Diégo Morcillo, Viceroy of Peru, in the city of Potosí, in 1716, Bolivia, 1716. Painting, oil on canvas, 240 x 570 cm. Madrid, Museo de América, Inv 00087

In early modern Europe, a man’s complete suit consisted of a coat (long vest or justaucorps), a vest (or waistcoat) and breeches. Continue reading “A” for Appearance: The Culture of Clothing. “The Art of Tailoring”

The Trade in the New Spanish Colonies (1600-1800)

Vincenzo Coronelli, Globes, 1683, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France.
Vincenzo Coronelli, Globes, 1683, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France.

In his dictionary of commerce, Savary des Bruslons writes that: “The West Indies, a Spanish colony, cannot do without merchandise and products manufactured in Europe” (Savary des Bruslons, I, Etat général du commerce, 1723). Continue reading The Trade in the New Spanish Colonies (1600-1800)

Dressing the new World: The Trade and the Culture of Clothing in the New Spanish Colonies 1600-1800.

F. Gerard Jollain (1717) Paris, BNF, Estampes et photographie, EST QB-1(1717) Source Gallica bnf.fr/Bibliotheque nationale de France
The Trade Indians from Mexico do with French on the Trading post in Mississipi, F. Gérard Jollain (1717). Paris, BNF, Estampes et photographie, EST QB-1(1717)
Source Gallica bnf.fr/Bibliothèque nationale de France
North and Central America. Nicolas de Fer (1713). GE C 24281 (RES) BNF, Cartes et plans.
North and Central America,
Nicolas de Fer (1713). Paris, BNF, Cartes et plans, GE C 24281 (RES)

What effect did the successful marketing of European products have on the New World at the beginning of the 18th century? And how should one go about studying the European Fashion and Textiles that transformed the way people dressed in the Spanish colonies? Continue reading Dressing the new World: The Trade and the Culture of Clothing in the New Spanish Colonies 1600-1800.